Thursday, August 27, 2020

Worldview Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Perspective - Essay Example As per Walters, a perspective can be characterized as a way through which an individual fathoms and comprehends what is around him this implies one’s perspective basically incorporates angles, for example, reality, feelings, insight just as a person’s capacity to offer significance to or decipher the happenings of the world (33). A skeptical perspective advances the idea of â€Å"naturalism† as its establishment; this thought proposes that the world we see around us is everything that matters (Walters 36). Accordingly, secularism doesn't advocate the presence of any extraordinary or magical substances nor does it put stock in any type of mysticism. Baggini noticed that the meaning of skepticism is incredibly clear †it is a belief which says that there is no God (4). From this conviction stem a few thoughts, as per which it is comprehended that there is in truth no eternal life and subsequently, no paradise or damnation (Baggini 6). Accordingly, when a person passes on that is an incredible finish; skepticism doesn't bolster the presence of spirits or supernatural spirits. The most significant inquiry that emerges anyway is that, if there is no perfect maker or Supreme Being, how might a skeptic clarify the idea of the universe? Dawkins contends that essentially depending on the hypothesis that the multifaceted nature of living beings is a proof of God isn't sufficient. Indeed, development by regular determination skillfully explains the unpredictability of every single living creation which thusly characterizes the idea of the universe (Dawkins). Baggini sees that there exists a general discernment which infers that since skepticism discredits the presence of God, thusly, an agnostic perspective may likewise challenge ethical quality and not hold trust in doing great and regarding others (5). Notwithstanding, that isn't the situation. While, skepticism sees the presence of a heavenly maker contrarily, it doesn't advocate cynicism in di fferent features of life (Baggini 5). A sound and strong childhood that is guided with and molded by training creates and improves an individual’s capacity to reason, think and recognize good and bad, consequently, imparting ethics and morals to comply with throughout everyday life. Baggini contends that dissimilar to a person who follows religion, a nonbeliever is as often as possible shelled with questions, for example, in the event that there is no God, at that point what is the significance of life? While, it is accepted that the strict don't have issues in characterizing the motivation behind life (84). The importance, point and reason forever is to be upbeat, prosperous and fulfilled all through one’s presence, it is to live without any second thoughts or dissatisfactions. In correlation with an agnostic perspective, a Christian perspective includes the fuse and incorporation of the lessons of Jesus Christ and the Bible into one’s life. As per Goheen and B artholomew the religion of Christianity requires an adherent to submit to a Christocentric conviction framework that exhaustively covers every single part of a follower’s life (14). Hence, a Christian perspective is based on tolerating the lessons of Jesus Christ, achieving salvation and recognizing the idea of the universe as guided by the Old Testament’s viewpoint of creation (Goheen and Bartholomew 14). A few noticeable journalists on the idea of the Christian perspective have proposed that fair-minded and objective human thinking which isn't banned by any assumptions or thoughts is well on the way to favor Christian philosophies (Goheen and Bartholomew 16) instead of supporting any opposing convictions. Notwithstanding, analysts who have faith in this thought have neglected to introduce logical proof and consistent contentions to help their

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Marketing Services Versus Products Part II Assignment

Promoting Services Versus Products Part II - Assignment Example Different similitudes and contrasts among items and administrations incorporate the way that items are substantial while administrations are impalpable ordinarily and that the two items and administrations can be advanced through publicizing and advertising. The way that items are unmistakable fundamentally influence the customization of items as in customization of items permits the end-clients to redo the item truly dependent on what they have indicated. Customization of administrations is substantially more extraordinary as in it centers around the arrangement of simple requesting and quicker conveyance administration to the clients. Note that normalization and customization are two distinct things with regards to building up the nature of administration. For instance, when contrasted with normalization, redid administration permits the clients to appreciate greater adaptability with regards to support they get from the supplier (Lamb, Hair, and McDaniel, 2013). It implies that normalized administrations are less adaptable. Corresponding to the promoting blend, Reggie referenced that the two items and administrations ought to fulfill the need necessities of every client. For example, items which allude to the two items (for example advanced cell) and administrations (for example legitimate administrations) should make positive experience to every client while advancement ought to publicize or make open mindfulness about the quality and uniqueness of the company’s items and administrations. Extra similitudes between the advertising of items and administrations incorporate the way that the two items and administrations can be separated through marking (Perreault, Cannon, and McCarthy, 2014). Contrasts between the promoting of items and administrations incorporate the way that items can be showcased through its bundling yet not in the situation of advertising administrations. In this way, the promoting of unmistakable things like clothes washer can be redone through its bundling however not

Friday, August 21, 2020

The Interesting Arthurian Literature Essay Topics

The Interesting Arthurian Literature Essay TopicsAs a budding author or as a short story writer, it is important to consider Arthurian literature essay topics when thinking about the kind of research paper or report that you will be writing. Having this list of topics gives you the option to write your work using a language that is much more familiar to you.Among the top Arthurian literature essay topics include why Arthur was born, and what makes him special as a man. Arthurian literature studies the personal and spiritual journey of this legendary fictional character through the words of writers and readers alike. It is quite common to find entries on love of one's life as well as death and relationships in general.Other popular topics include the aspects of religion such as the many symbols and images that can be found throughout the legend, especially with regards to famous characters that are dear to people from different backgrounds. Traditionally, the Arthurian novels and stor ies have been set in the times of medieval England and are primarily for the young at heart.For the kids who would like to learn more about the legend, there are some good books to read about the subject. Many people want to know about the legend's origins, and even if it's not strictly necessary, it will make a good story to read for the kids to help them discover something new about the subject. They will also be able to appreciate the characters they enjoy and might even consider getting involved in the things that they see.Any childhood memories that the reader can bring up may include the events around the time of Arthur's birth. The birth of Arthur has been an event that has continued throughout the history of mankind, and it may be difficult to explain how the most unlikely of places could host such a historic event. Some people would even name it the miracle of the century.In contemporary times, there are still books written about this historical figure, which is something t hat everyone can relate to in a way or another. It is thought that even though he may be dead, the legend lives on, and is very much alive today. Since so many people remember his story, this could actually be a good place to start writing an interesting Arthurian literature essay topic.This legend does not only appeal to academics, but can actually make a good story for a young aspiring writer who wants to write for the masses and become an academic person. He could even write about his own personal experiences in the legend. A young aspirant may be interested in the legend due to the fact that he enjoys learning about the major themes and issues that seem to be relevant to modern people today.In conclusion, this legend could be quite good for a great educational paper. Everyone should enjoy reading about and learning about such myths, even if they don't understand the real meaning behind it. They might even be touched by some of the stories, so make sure that they relate to the id eals that the legend was based on.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Do price cautious consumers benefit from supermarket expansion - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 18 Words: 5345 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Title: Write a literary review: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Do price cautious consumers benefit from supermarket expansion?à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ 4000 words. This paper focuses on the question of whether expansion in the supermarket sector has produced real benefits for the retail consumer in terms of cost. It sets out to examine this issue through a collective review of the associated literature, and especially media reports, official sources, and academic publications. It will focus predominantly on the UK market as an empirical model: however, where appropriate, it will also consider the implications of globalization for British supermarkets and consumers. This topic, it may be argued, has been rendered highly topical by contemporary events. An environment of economic uncertainty has had the effect of focusing consumer and media attention squarely on retail price reductions à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" and rises. Background and Conceptual Issues. There is no question that there has been a huge expansion in the UK supermarket sector over the last twenty years. Furthermore, this expansion has been multi-faceted. Not only has the number and variety of supermarket retailers grown dramatically, but the latter have been actively re-defining the nature of the business in a manner which far exceeds its former model. This diversification has seen the range of products and services available to consumers expand beyond all recognition, and one feature above all characterizes the strategy and accomplishment of this: competition on price. It is arguably a generally held principle that the supermarket business as a whole has sought, gained and maintained its competitive advantage predominantly on price. As the Office of Fair Trading observes, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦We have received no firm evidence to show that below-cost selling and price flexing are affecting competition adversely. The opinion has been expressed to us that price-flexing has decreased since 2000 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (OFT 2005: p.9) This is not to say that the sector has not also attempted to increase market share à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" and access new markets à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" through innovation. Online shopping and e.commerce provides a key example of this. However, the latter arguably still augments any convenience derived from internet purchases with the assurance that the customer is receiving the best available price for their merchandise. It is also important to differentiate between the principle supermarket businesses, which cannot be seen as a homogeneous block: their pricing policies are intrinsically connected to the vagaries of their own business fortunes. Asda continues to leverage on the buying power of its US parent company Wal-mart, to pressurize its rivals. The current sector leader, Tesco, with a market share fluctuating around 30%, continues to invest hundreds of millions of pounds in price cuts, to retain its self-proclaimed à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"drivi ng forceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ status in what it terms à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"bargain Britain.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ As former CEO Tim Mason put, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"I believe (the) Tesco Value range has been a driving force in bringing prices down for shoppers. That is what today we sell a Value iron for under a fiver, a pair of jeans for three pounds and a kilo of potatoes for forty penceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Rigby 2005). In an age of savvy Category Management however, where planograms may attract footfall business in carefully constructed ways, this foregrounding of deeply discounted lines may mask the overall cost of essential shopping for consumers. The question which must be asked here is therefore, how true are such claims? In other words, is the case that consumers can rely totally on supermarket claims of truly competitive pricing in favour of the consumer, or is this idea a misleading one? The basic contention of this paper is that, although supermarket expansion does confer certain benefits on the consumer in terms of price, it is not necessarily the case that continued expansion will automatically do so. As Seth and Randall suggest, there are several ways in which the cost-effectiveness of supermarket shopping for UK consumers could be measured. As they put it, two comparisons should be made: specifically, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦what shoppers could buy the same or similar goods for in Britain, and the price levels in other countries compared with Britain.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. As they themselves concede however, the results are by no means incontrovertible or clear. (Seth and Randall 1999: p.259). There is also a sense in which such data would, in any case, be inadequate to address the question under discussion here. Seth and Randallà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s argument is, in a sense, a totalizing critique, applicable to the supermarket sector as a whole. For a number of reasons, it is a generally held truism that UK consumers get a relatively poor deal compared to their continental or North American counterparts: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å" view is that the British grocers have managed to persuade their shoppers to accept higher price levels in return for the range and quality of goods, and the ambience of their more attractive stores.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Seth and Randall 1999: p.259). There are arguably a number of social, economic and cultural factors which could be brought to bear here. However, in absolute terms, a rather different type of enquiry needs to be pursued in this context. Specifically, the fact UK consumers on aggregate pay a higher price, may apply in spite of supermarket expansion, or because of it. In other words, the only way to identify the precise role of expansion within this equation is to isolate it, a process only practicable over a very long term analysis. This might be achieved, for example, by comparing price levels in the earlier, pre-expansion manifestation of the UK supermarket sector, with more contemporary figures. The oth er conceptual question which needs to be asked is, whether major supermarket price wars can actually have a benefit to consumers beyond the confines of the supermarkets themselves. In other words, does supermarket discount policy force other, non-supermarket high street retailers to reduce their profit margins by reducing costs to the end user? Circumstantially, the answer would seem to be yes. When struggling to explain a drop of almost 46 per cent in its pre-tax profits, previously buoyant high street player JJB Sports attributed the loss to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦competition from rival chains, department stores, supermarkets and the internet.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Callan 2006). Research of this depth is, however, beyond the scope, and tangential to the purpose of this particular discussion. The point being made here is arguably a highly relevant one: how, precisely, can the real benefits to consumers from supermarket expansion be measured and assessed in terms of price? In te rms of a literature review, how has this question been treated in the different genres of scholarship devoted to supermarket retailing? There is much circumstantial evidence to show that the proliferation of supermarket chains can and in some instances has led to an overall price reduction. For example, in 2006 the Office of National Statistics reported a 0.4 percent reduction in food and alcoholic beverages across the sector, instrumental in achieving the Bank of Englandà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s annual 2 per cent target. (Chisholm and Scheherazade, 2006). As will be discussed below however, these general statistics can mask the important details of pricing structure in non-discretionary spending: when viewed more closely à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" and critically -, a far more complex picture emerges. In essence, it is not the scale of the expansion but the element of true competition which exists within it, which is the most useful indication of benefit to the consumer. In other words, it i s perfectly possible for expansion in retailing to militate against the interests of the consumer, if certain conditions prevail. For example, as Braithwaite reports of contemporary conditions, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"The price of non-discretionary items, such as fuel and food has been rising sharply, a trend that affects retail in different ways.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Braithewaite, 2008). As this indicates, supermarkets have been passing on the higher supply chain costs of raw materials to consumers quite happily, a situation which can only prevail when all the major supermarket chains maintain pricing policies which are more or less aligned. Literature Review: Methodology. A key problem in deciding how to approach this topic, is that of integrating several different, but overlapping forms of literature devoted the supermarket business. In real terms this means that texts on business, performance management, corporate responsibility, business ethics, sustainability, technical and marketi ng specialisms, consumer affairs, politics and economics, must all be taken into account. The issue here is that whilst all of this disciplines produce research on the supermarket sector, they do so from quite different perspectives, and for radically different purposes. This situation arises basically out of their respective authorship and intended audience: for example, a supermarket groupà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s report to shareholders is likely to maintain a completely different perspective and argument from a report from a consumer association document, even though they might have the same business as their core subject. However, from the researcherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s point of view, the existence of these parallel positions is arguably a distinct advantage, since it means that the claims and counter-claims of each party may be extensively cross-referenced, and their argument objectively assessed. What, specifically, are the most useful sources for this kind of discussion? It may b e helpful here to visualize the different types of texts available in terms of their likely objectivity, in relation to the specific question under discussion here. Where are we likely to find the most objective and reliable assessment of whether consumers benefit from supermarket expansion, in terms of retail pricing? On the industry side there are Company Reports, Corporate Responsibility Reports and Financial Statements. Government and official sources include the Retail Price Index, which offers an aggregate assessment of the pressure on consumer expenditure, Office of Fair Trading reports and proceedings, as well as the output of various standing and specially appointed parliamentary bodies. Moving on from this there are a plethora of specialist industry and marketing analyses to incorporate, followed by parties with vested interests such as investor and consumer groups, then academic and vocational literature and journals. There is also a vast amount of commentary on this topi c in the UK media, which, it may be argued, fuels the public preoccupation with retail price movements. It can also be argued that the depth and quality of analyses in terms of contemporary events is likely to improve with the passage of time: the longer the period which elapses between events and research, the greater the increase the amount of genuinely valuable material available. Company reports and Corporate Responsibility Reports are as good as any place to start the process of research. The latter in particular are a relatively new genre in the associated literature, and their format has rapidly evolved into a recognizable format. CSR reports are not as yet a statutory requirement, in the UK, however, increasing numbers of companies are joining the ranks of those who choose to publish them. It could be argued that membership of this group represents an article of faith with consumer sentiment: as Brewster points out, the number of FTSE 100 companies who participate in this movement stood at 69 in 2007. (Brewster 2007). It therefore can reasonably be argued that these documents have become a space where corporations can acknowledge public concerns, and the extent of corporate responsibility can be informally agreed with the readership. As such, it is often what CSR reports omit, rather than what they include, which is of interest to the researcher. Collectively, and perhaps understandably, they say very little about the issue of price and competitiveness. Media Reporting. In this context, we are chiefly concerned with hard copy publications in the mainstream press, and in particular long established and respected organs such as the Financial Times, the Economist, and occasional specialist articles from the glossy and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"lifestyleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ genre. It is argued here that, compared to other research topics, press reports on retailing have a significant import: this situation may be illustrated through comparison with another sub ject. Take politics as an example. If we were engaged in a literature review of a political career, party, or movement, the conclusions which could be drawn from media reporting would be superficial at best. Although such articles might be useful for foregrounding issues and identifying key factors, little or nothing of true significance could be positively decided purely from their content. Such conclusions would have to await the inevitable memoirs, publication of official papers and diaries, accounts assembled through scrutiny of Hansard, and subsequent in-depth academic studies. The competing interpretations could then be drawn up, and the usually inconclusive debate over blame and responsibility could begin in earnest. The reverse is true of contemporary economic journalism, a situation based in its content and purpose, and perceptible in the example of the Financial Times. Although it is perfectly possible for that product to be consumed for interest and entertainment, t he bulk of its reporting is functional in nature, and relies for its success on the accurate and objective reporting of events as they happen. This is because a good proportion of its private and corporate readership rely on FT reporting to help form business and investment decisions. Therefore, although its reports are, like any other journalism, subject to scrutiny and interpretation, they are unquestionably influential in forming business community perceptions and opinion. Not only will they report accurately on issues such as price, but also link such issues with those of supermarket share prices, the trust indicator of their business performance. Bearing this in mind, it is important to note the research of observers such as Braithwaite, who reports that, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦for all the talk of supermarket price wars, there is little evidence of stark margin attrition, and food retail stocks remain far more resilient than their non-food sector counterparts, most of wh ich are selling wholly discretionary items.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Braithwaite 2008). It may fairly be assumed that stock prices retain their value through the maintenance of margins, itself at least partly due to a commensurate pricing ratio. Some of the clearest evidence of this comes from the rigorous analyses offered by market observers and investment fund managers, as the Financial Times reports. Contemporary supermarket group share prices appear to be based on extremely optimistic valuation multiples of price/earnings ratio, indicating a belief that earnings are recession-resistant, and the stocks consequently asset backed. As one leading analyst revealed, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"We have doubts on both countsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. (Hume 2008). In terms of prices charged to consumers, this suggests that supermarkets will not be reducing their margins through heavy discounting, but will instead expect shoppers to accept pre-recession prices for their non-discretionary purchases. In any case, as John reports, intensifying competition based on price often indicates other factors in the market, such as take-overs and forthcoming expansion, as in the case of the Morrisons bid for Safeway: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Morrisonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s gambit of 1.32 shares for each Safeway share was seen as high priced and the identification of  £250 million of compensatory cost savings was viewed as the precursor to a round of internecine cost-cutting.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (John 2003). In other words, resulting price concessions to consumers were seen as distraction and a means of maintaining short term share price and liquidity. Little attention was given to the affect on those shoppers when such tactical reductions were arbitrarily withdrawn. However, as mentioned earlier, the overall effect of supermarket price competition is not restricted purely to those retailers themselves, but may impact more generally on the prices consumers pay in the high street. As Rigby reported of supermarke t discounting in 2005, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"The latest round is indicative of the wider trend of price discounting. Retailers such as Boots, WH Smith and Marks and Spencer have been reducing prices for months to fight off competition from supermarkets.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Rigby 2005). Similarly, the slump experienced by JJB Sports in 2006 was only addressed by matching the discounts of supermarket rivals. (Callan: 2006). Official Sources. We are here considering documents such as the Office of Fair Tradingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s, (Supermarkets: The code of practice and other competition issues. Conclusions. (2005), ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Annual Report and Resource Accounts 2007-08, (2008), and the Competition Commission, Market investigation into the supply of groceries in the UK, (2008). Official literature features some of the most comprehensive, extensively researched and detailed texts available on the issue of supermarket behaviour. This is arguably attributable to two factors. Firs tly, agencies such as the Competition Commission and Office of Fair Trading are the platforms on which statutory responsibility for the healthy operation of markets is built. They are à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" nominally at least responsible to the appropriate government ministries, and also have significant resources of manpower, time, and public funds to expend. This means they are by no means ineffective: as the OFTà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s own report indicates, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"We estimate that our efforts into preventing anti-competitive mergers saved the consumers on average around  £115 million annually over the period 2005-06 to 2007-08.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Office of Fair Trading, 2008: p.43) However, these very strengths also imply certain limitations on their operation however. In the first instance, it is by no means straightforward to insulate the governmentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s officiating agencies from the editorial pressures implicit in both parliamentary and extra-parliamentary lobbying. Royal Commissions, composed of M.P.s, members of the House of Lords, and invited à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"expertsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, and Select Committees of M.P.s, are notoriously capable of stage-managing official enquiries, to produce certain outcomes. By implication, the OFT is obliged to assume what it terms a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"balancedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ approach, or, as it puts it, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦focus on outcomes which support productivity, growth and the prosperity of the UK economy as we believe this is in the best interests of businesses and consumers.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Office of Fair Trading 2008: p.22) To the objective observer then, the extent to which government action would militate against entrenched corporate positions is a debatable point. Nevertheless, if only because of their use of conventional economic taxonomies and analyses, official sources contain some of the most closely argued cases for and against the supposed effectiveness of supermarke t price competition. Take for example the Competition Commissionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s latest analysis of loss-leader behaviour via the mechanism of below-cost selling. As the latter observes, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Opinion varies as to the conditions necessary for predation to occur. We believe that for below-cost selling by large grocery retailers to be a predatory strategy aimed at operators of independent non-affiliated or symbol group convenience stores or specialist grocery storesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Competition Commission 2008: p.95 para.5.57) The corollary to this, as the Commission observes, is a conventional economic elasticity in such strategies: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦for a large grocery retailer to recoup losses incurred during any predation period, it would need to eliminate all grocery retailers capable of constraining its prices so that it could subsequently increase prices and recover the profits forgone. This would need to include other large grocery reta ilers. Alternatively, it would have to collude with the grocery retailers that were not eliminated in the predatory phase to increase prices.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Competition Commission p.96, para 5.59). In other words, cutting prices may not benefit the consumer in the long term. Certain categories of price cuts are made purely to undercut competition: once this object is achieved, the consumer has nowhere else to go but the victorious supermarket outlet for their essential grocery or produce purchases, so they must pay whatever is being asked. The strength of official literature lays in its capacity to reveal these strategies, a fact emphasized by the recent testimony of John Fingleton, director of the Office of Fair Trading, who asserted that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦for markets to work well for consumers, it is a fundamental principle that pricing decisions should be made independentlyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. He added that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦if evidence of anti-compe titive activity was found, the OFT was prepared to use the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“appropriate powersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  to punish the companies involved, and to deter other businesses from taking part in such behaviour.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Peel, Braithwaite and Murphy, 2008). Such official sources do not come without their own inherent problems however, a fact which may be illustrated by cross referencing with related media reports. As Urry relates, the Competition Commission was recently forced to apologized to Morrisons, and pay  £100,000 in damages, after its allegations of price fixing of tobacco products were proved to be groundless. This is not to say that the supermarkets are not regularly caught with their hands in the till, or, metaphorically speaking, picking their customerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s pockets through collusion on price. In December 2007, a group of leading supermarkets and dairies were collectively fined a total of  £116 million for the price-fixing of milk and a ssociated products: Tesco alone continues to contest this case. (Urry 2008). Academic Commentary. Compared to the literature of marketing the range of academic studies devoted purely to supermarket retailing is relatively small, perhaps because of the difficulty of empirical research in an atmosphere of company confidentiality. Perhaps for the same reasons, much of this literature tends to be retrospective in nature, assembling a long overview of the supermarket sectorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s trajectory into modernity. Typical of this sub-genre is Seth and Randallà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s The Grocers, (1999), as well as Randallà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s own Marketing in the Retail Trade, (1997), Jeffreyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Retail Trading in Britain 1850-1950, (1954), and Murcottà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s The Nationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Diet: The Social Science of Food Choice, (1998). Another sub-genre lays in the academic and semi-academic sphere of organizational history, biography and autobiography. Typical examples of this lay in publications such as Emersonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Sainsburyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s: The Record Years, (2006), Powellà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Counter-Revolution: The Tesco Story (1991), and Bookbinderà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Simon Marks, Retail Revolutionary, (1993). What, precisely, do these genres contribute to the debate about consumer benefit from supermarket expansion? From the critical perspective, the answer is that the benefits to the UK consumer are not only relative, and minimal., but also highly contradictory. For example, Seth and Randall observe that, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"It is well known that British food retailers make margins that are significantly higher than those of their European and American rivals à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" around 5-7 per cent compared with around 2-4 per centà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, although they concede that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦there is considerable argument about which exact figures to quote and what they mean.à ¢Ã¢ ‚ ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Seth and Randall 1999: p.259). This is directly contradicted in the views of the Sainsburyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s boardroom, as reported by Emerson, which assert that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦contrary to some reports, UK food prices are generally lower than in other European countries. This is in part a tribute to our food industry as a whole, and in part due to the stronger place that retailersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ brands have in the UK food trade, compared to other countries.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Emerson 2006: p.230). Elsewhere, a predictably corporate line is maintained, to the extent that the whole is issue of value to consumers is subsumed beneath other considerations. As Emerson relates, the official line at Sainsburyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s, when confronted with official pressure to curb prices, was that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦the word à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“profità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  had been turned à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“an emotive term of abuseà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and that à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ Å“the true nature and need for profit is not widely understoodà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ .à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Emerson 2006: p.132.). Again, this needs to be balanced against media reports which perceive the problem in another way. As Hall reports, other perspectives hold that inflated prices are the consequence of too much market liberalism, and see the need for à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦a public policy, a means of intervention and stabilization.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Hall 2008). Crucially, organs such as the FT also provide a platform for perspectives which argue that supermarket pricing will, eventually, militate against the UK consumerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s best interest. Take for example the plight of small producers who, cumulatively, represent a key factor in food security of supply, but may not be able to withstand the short-terms pressures on margins which supermarkets demand. As Henley reports, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"The supermarkets are well aware of this but their view is, let the market work. Yes, it will work eventually, but only after many farmers have gone out of business and supply falls dramatically. Farming is long term. I must look a year in advance and decide what to do but accept what is offered every Friday. In my view, with size comes responsibility. In order to ensure future supplies, sometimes and now is definitely one of those times à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" the market must be ignored. We must never forget that food is needed every day, by everyone.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Henley, 2008: n.p.). This, in a sense, is another form of loss leadership, albeit distributed along the supply chain. As the commentator points out, the gradual elimination of small producers is one means by which supermarkets preserve their margins. Ultimately, it is debatable whether this is in the consumerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s best interests in terms of the variety and quality of food available. Bibliography. Arnold, M., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Private equity chief in warning on code.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ , Financial Times, : November 18 2007 , [viewed 22.10.08], n.p. Blumentritt, T., and Danis, W.M., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Business Strategy Types and Innovative Practicesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol. 18, 2006. INTERNET, available at [viewed 22.10.08] Blythman, J., ( 2005), Shopped: The Shocking Power of British Supermarkets, Harper Perrenial, London. Bookbinder, P., (1993), Simon Marks, Retail Revolutionary, Weidenfield and Nicolson, London. Braithwaite, T., and Leahy, J., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Marks and Spencer steps up India presenceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times, Published: April 18 2008 INTERNET, available at [viewed 22.10.08] Braithwaite, T., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"On London: Hope on the Horizon for Stores à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times, Aug 22 2008 INTERNET, available at [viewed 22.10.08] Brewster, D., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Sustainability Report Seeks the Factsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times, ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¨Published: Dec 09, 2007, INTERNET, available at, [viewed 11.4.08], n.p. Callan, E., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Price wars and stronger competition hitting JJBà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times, 21 April 2006, INTERNET, available at [viewed 23.10.08], n.p. Calloway, J., (2003), Becoming a Category of One: How Extraordinary Companies Transcend Commodity and Defy Comparison, New Jersey. Chee, H., Harris, R., (1998), Global Marketing Strategy, London. Chandler, A. (1996) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"From the Visible Handà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in Put terman, L. and R. Kroszner (Eds) The Economic Nature of the Firm, 2nd Ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Chisholm, J., and Scheherazade, D., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Milk price war helps bring down inflationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, April 21 2006, INTERNET, [viewed 23.10.08] Clegg, S., Kornberger, M., and Pitsis, T., (2006), Managing and Organisations. An introduction to theory and practice, Sage, London. Cohen, K.J., and Cyert, R.M., (1965), Theory of the Firm: Resource Allocation in a Market Economy , Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Competition Commission, (2008), Market investigation into the supply of groceries in the UK, HMSO London. Davoudi, S., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"T Report à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Global Brands 2008: Strong names beat the marketà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¨Published: Apr 21, 2008, Financial Times, e=falsex=15id=080421000145ct=0 , [viewed 22.10.08] Emerson, G., (2006), Sainsburyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s: The Record Years, Haggerston Press, London. Gilbert, X., and Strebel, P., (1988), à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Developing Competitive Advantageà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, in Quinn, J.B., Mintzberg, H., and James, R., (eds), The Strategy Process, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs NJ, pp.82-93. Hall, B., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"EUà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s food policy is answer to high pricesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times Published: April 28 2008, INTERNET, available at [viewed 22.10.08] Hart, S.L., (2007), Capitalism at the Crossroads: Aligning Business, Earth and Humanity, 2nd Edition, Wharton, Upper Saddle River, N.J Henley, F.R., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Size must bring responsibilityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times Published: April 22 2008, INTERNET, available at [vie wed 22.10.08] Hooley, G., Saunders, J., Piercy, N., (2004) Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning, (3rd Edition), FT/Prentice Hall, Essex. Hume, N., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"On London: Supermarket stocks left on the shelfà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Published: Mar 14, 2008, INTERNET, available at [viewed 22.10.08] Jeffreys, J.B., (1954), Retail Trading in Britain 1850-195, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. John Lewis Partnership Plc Annual Report and Accounts, 2007. John, P., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Retail Price War beckonsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times, Jan 10 2003, INTERNET available at [viewed 23.10.08] Manuel, J., (2007), à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Battle of the Biofuelsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol.115, INTERNET, available at 4683?title=Battle%20of%20the%20Biofuels, [viewed 22.10.08] Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B., and Lampel, J., (1998), Strategy Safari: The Complete Guide Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, Prentice Hall, London. Monks, R., and Minow, N., (2004), Corporate Governance, Basil Blackwell, Oxford. Murcott, A., (ed), The Nationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Diet: The Social Science of Food Choice, Longman, London. Murphy, M., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Tesco to offer retail degreeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times Published: April 14 2008, INTERNET, available at Murray, S., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Lessons in helping the world developà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times, Published: Feb 25, 2008, INTERNET, available at [viewed 22.10.08] Office of Fair Trading, (2008), Annual Report and Resource Accounts 2007-08, The Stationery Off ice, London. Office of Fair Trading, (2005), Supermarkets: The code of practice and other competition issues. Conclusions. August, OFT807, HMSO, London. Palmer, I., and Hardy, C., (2000), Thinking About Management, Sage, London. Peel, M., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"New Laws galvanise watchdog hunt for cartelsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Financial Times Published: April 18, INTERNET, available at [viewed 22.10.08] Peel, M., Braithwaite, T., and Murphy, M., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Tobacco groups face price allegationsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times Published: April 24 2008 [viewed 22.10.08] Porter, M.E., (1980), Competitive Strategy, Free Press, New York. Post, J., Lawrence, A.T., and Weber, J., (2002), Business and Society: Corporate Strategy, Public Policy, Ethics, McGraw Hill, Boston. Powell, D., (1991), Counter Rvolution: The Tesco Story, Grafto n, London. Randall, G., (1997), Marketing to the Retail Trade, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford. Seth, A., and Randall, G., (1999), The Grocers, Kogan Page, London. Ricart, E.J., Enright, M.J., Ghemawat, P., Hart, S.L., Khanna, T.,(2004), à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"New Frontiers in International Strategyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 35,. INTERNET, available at ttp:// Frontiers in International Strategy, [viewed 24.4.08] Rigby, E., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Tesco and Asda restart UK price warà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times, April 13 2005, INTERNET, available at [viewed] Rigby, E., and Braithwaite, T., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Sour note for Tesco over Fresh and easy resultsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Published: April 1 2008, INTERNET, available at [viewed 22.10.08] Rigby, E., and Braithwaite, T., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Tesco shrugs off downturnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Published: April 15 2008, INTERNET, available at 200 [viewed 22.10.08] J.Sainsbury Plc, Annual Report and Financial Statement 2005. Tesco PLC Annual Report and Financial Statements, 2007. Tesco PLC Annual Review and Summary Financial Statement 2008. Tilson, W., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Activist shareholders are here to stay and investors should be glad.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times, Oct 12, 2007, INTERNET available at [viewed 22.10.08] n.p. Thal Larsen, P., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"FT REPORT CORPORATE FINANCE 2007: Sub-prime crisis claims sacrifices.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times, Oct 31, 2007, INTERNET, available at, [viewed 22.10.08], n.p. Whyte, J., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"There is too much social mobility in Britainà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times, Nov 08, 2007 INTERNET, available at https ://, [viewed 22.10.08], n.p. Unattributed, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Food or fuel? The policy choice becomes agonisingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times Published: April 25 2008, INTERNET, available at [viewed 22.10.08] Unattributed, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Lex Column: Marks and Spencerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¨Financial Times, Published: Jul 11, 2007, INTERNET, available at [viewed 22.10.08] Urry, M., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Morrison gets OFT apologyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times Published: April 23 2008, INTERNET, available at [viewed 22.10.08] Varley, R., (2001), Retail Product Management, Routledge, London. Whittington, R., (2002), What is Strategy and Does it Matter? Sage, London. Unattributed, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Consensus on crops turns into acrimonyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times, Published: April 26 2008, INTERNET, available at [viewed 22.10.08] Unattributed, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Food or fuel? The policy choice becomes agonisingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Financial Times Published: April 25 2008, INTERNET, available at [viewed 22.10.08] Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Do price cautious consumers benefit from supermarket expansion?" essay for you Create order

Friday, May 15, 2020

Gender, And Eurocentric Beauty Standards - 1244 Words

RACE Throughout our nation’s history it has been quite evident that race has been an issue. Especially here in America, the idea that a white person is more superior than the masses of â€Å"colored† people is true, and eurocentric beauty standards are placed among everyone. Since the beginning, America was built off of white minds and done by hands around the world. Since racism has been carried out to our current day society, we still deal with numerous issues that prevents people from getting along. The idea of another being different is something that a westerner cannot comprehend. It has been common for westerners to avoid understanding others and instead try their hardest to get others to conform to their own lifestyle. The use of†¦show more content†¦They found that students held clear, negative stereotypes – few students expressed any difficulty in responding to the questionnaire. Most students at that time would have been white Americans and the pict ures of other ethnic groups included Jews as shrewd and mercenary, Japanese as shrewd and sly, Negroes as lazy and happy-go-lucky and Americans as industrious and intelligent. (McLeod, Saul. Saul McLeod. Simply Psychology. N.p., 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 17 Mar. 2017.) The interesting thing about the George Lopez is the fact that it was George being offended by someone else and was preaching about how it isn’t okay that people assume Mexicans are lazy, ignorant, and criminals. But the way the writers wrote it ended up with George, Benny, and Max doing crime but in a way were getting their own justice at the same time. It’s a bit ironic if you truly think about it. STEREOTYPING So as we know, race has been an issue but why do we decide to do them? According to psychologists, the cognitive approach refused to let the rest of us off the hook. It made the simple but profound point that we all use categories—of people, places, things—to make sense of the world around us. Our ability to categorize and evaluate is an important part of human intelligence, says Banaji. Without it, we couldn t survive. But stereotypes are too much of a good thing. In the course of stereotyping, a useful category—say, women—becomes freighted withShow MoreRelatedCultural Beauty Ideals As A Form Of Ethnic Body Policing : Origins And Effects On East Asian Women1448 Words   |  6 PagesEurocentric Beauty Ideals as a Form of Ethnic body policing: Origins and effects on East Asian Women. Many, East Asian women increasingly travel widely outside of East Asian countries to western ones and vice versa. Additionally, many East Asian women travel to the United States of America to attend College and Graduate programs. Globalization and western media are increasing their foot hold in East Asian countries. The universal aesthetic of beauty is becoming increasingly popular. This paperRead MoreBarbie Vs Bratz : Global Models Of Beauty For Women Of Color1755 Words   |  8 PagesGlobal Models of Beauty for Women of Color It is widely accepted that societies create standards of beauty where certain features are seen as more desirable. These beauty standards differ among historical periods and localities, disseminating through media, literature, and other forms of mass communication to affect individual psyches and everyday interactions. In the modern era, global beauty standards are demonstrably Eurocentric, which I define as describing ideals of beauty that correlate withRead MoreEssay on Image of African American Women845 Words   |  4 PagesMore Than My Hair?: African American Women and Their Struggles with Beauty, Body Image, and Hair Tracey Owen Patton provides a historical review on the emergence of black stereotypes, elaborating on how black women earned the status of inferiority. Black women are held to the Eurocentric expectations, causing these adverse perceptions to evolve from the created principle that white women are the only defining archetypes of beauty (Patton 26). The societal pra ctice of comparing black women to whiteRead MoreAnalysis Of The Little Mermaid 1688 Words   |  7 Pagesfatale who attempts to destroy all that is good, and sabotage the heroine’s happy ending. Our teenage heroine in this case would be Ariel, the 16-year-old daughter of Triton, the king of the ocean. While Ariel comes from royalty and is praised for her beauty, youth, and innocence, her bright and independent self undergoes a physical transformation that leads her to become a mute doll who is focused on seizing a kiss from the prince, and winning his heart. On the other hand we have Ursula, who was exiledRead MoreThe Influence Of The Iranian Culture Essay1678 Words   |  7 Pagesheavy regulated Muslim society. Through this socio-autobiography I will show how culture, gender and power have shaped my life, and made me the person I am today. With Iranian culture having a heavy influence on all these. It is important to note that the process from pre revolution to post revol ution plays an important part in Iran and its culture. I will be focussing on not only ethnicity, but also gender, which I have felt to notice more now at 18 years of age, and also the influence that powerRead MoreBlack Hair : Physical And Psychological Protective Styles Essay1851 Words   |  8 Pagesthese unrealistic standards for beauty, especially in a world that tends to favor the Eurocentric standards? This study discusses the phenomenon behind black women and their hairstyles and explains that their choice in hairstyle is not solely reliant on societal expectations, but also equally of their own personality, self-esteem, and time. The topic of beauty standards and body image is a pressing matter regularly discussed in today’s society. However, the concept of black beauty (those of AfricanRead MoreBlack Women s Self Esteem1774 Words   |  8 Pagesconsuming these images and have no other way to think about themselves. This puts more pressure on Black women to want to assimilate to Eurocentric standards of beauty which has a direct effect on their self-esteem as discussed in the very popular documentary ‘For Dark Girls’ where Black women discussed their struggles with trying to achieve this Eurocentric standard of beauty. Along with the Mammy stereotype, the portrayal of Black women as being lecherous by nature is also a continuing stereotype. LewdRead MoreThe Song, All About That Bass1800 Words   |  8 Pagesreject the standards of a thin-centric society, the song and its music video have received criticism from feminists, specifically on their heteronormative and â€Å"skinny-shaming† elements. In this paper, I deconstruct the song and video by using intersectional feminist and queer approaches. I am particularly interested in how Trainor’s song â€Å"idealizes† and prioritizes certain bodies over others, and my analysis will focus on how the song’s themes represent common (cis)heteronormative, Eurocentric, and fatRead MoreThe Natural Hair Movement Essay2207 Words   |  9 Pagessomething that should be shocking to many. There is a great amount of historical context behind the continuous influence Eurocentric beauty ideals have had on black women for centuries. Accordi ng to Nadia Brown (2014), Black natural hair throughout history has proven to be recognized as â€Å"either unintended or intended personal and political statements† (298). the beauty standard in Western society which praises European hair textures, has influenced many black women to be critical of other black womenRead MoreBlack Women And The Media1107 Words   |  5 Pagesbecause they are not the type of â€Å"mixed person† the media loves. All of these impossible standards make black woman feel ugly and unappreciated which causes self-hate. As a result of self hating, some black women turn to products like skin bleaching to fit Eurocentric beauty standards. These young black women feel that in order to receive attention and acceptance from society, it is necessary to conform to its standards. Black women striving for personal success have come to be seen as the exception rather

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

To Breast Feed or Not to Breastfeed - 3271 Words

Breastfeeding rates are continually increasing. The nutritional benefit of breast over formula is a long established fact. â€Å"According to the latest numbers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, breastfeeding rates improved nationwide in 2000-2008, and some of the greatest improvement was among black women. However, only about 59 percent of black mothers breastfed in 2008, compared to 80 percent of Hispanic mothers and about 75 percent of white mothers. For 2008 rates of breastfeeding at a baby’s first birthday, the number was about 23 percent overall but only 12.5 percent for black mothers. That low rate still marks a near doubling of rates among black mothers compared to the year 2000† (Currie, 2013).It is the recommended†¦show more content†¦The research by Noble-Carr and Bell (2012) demonstrated that nurses need to provide their patients with readily accessible, clear and concise breastfeeding information early on in their pregnancy. Prep aration can begin to prepare the women’s mind for the will breastfeeding requires. Women choose to not breastfeed continually due to the constraints that it can put on their lives. In pregnant and post-partum mothers, can targeted education and strategies focused on patient constraints to breastfeeding positively impact the initiation and continuance of breastfeeding as opposed to general education focused on only the benefits of breastfeeding Throughout this paper, the author information will provide information on how different methods of teaching can help to influence the continuation of breastfeeding in pregnant and postpartum mothers. The paper will also critique three research articles. The articles will consist of either qualitative or quantitative research. The main goal or purpose of this paper is to show why mothers discontinue breastfeeding after discharge and how healthcare providers can more appropriately promote its continuation to these mothers. Critique #1 The purpose of the study was to assess the variation of breastfeeding knowledge and practices of registered nurses, including the initiation and support of breastfeeding in the hospital byShow MoreRelatedGuidelines Of Guidelines Regarding Milk Banks Essay1403 Words   |  6 Pagesemployer about the benefits of providing a time and place to express milk. There is information available from La Leche League that can be given to the employer. There are supporting programs also, like (WIC) Woman Infant and child program is for both breast feeding moms and bottle feeding moms. According to WIC is a federal program designed to provide food to low-income pregnant, postpartum and breastfeeding women, infants and children until the age of five. The program provides a combination of nutritionRead MoreBreast Feeding Vs. Formula Feeding1111 Words   |  5 PagesSoto 1 Melissa Soto Human Development Professor Daniel Marron 13 February 2015 Breast feeding vs. formula feeding One of the most imperative decision as an expectant mother is deciding whether to formula feed or breastfeed their newborn. Organizations including World Health Organization (WHO), American Medical Association (AMA), and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) advocate breastfeeding as the advantageous option for newborns. Most of these organizations and other supporters of breastfeedingRead MoreBreastfeeding in Public884 Words   |  4 Pagesview a womans breasts as sexual items. The main purpose of breasts Is to breastfeed a child after birth. I came across The Milk Truck while back. The Milk Truck is there â€Å"to create a mobile breastfeeding unit that allows mothers to feed their babies in places where they have been discouraged - restaurants, shopping malls, public spaces, etc. Babies should be able to eat anywhere, and everywhere. I am absolutely for breastfeeding in public. Breastfeeding is when a woman feeds her child from herRead MoreWomen Should Be A Child s Feeding Schedule Should Not Be Changed909 Words   |  4 PagesWomen should have the right to breastfeed in public places without feeling intimidated or embarrassed. Breastfeeding in public is one of the most controversial issues in society today. An issue which is misunderstood as a disrespectful act of indecent exposure, when in fact it is the most natural thing in the world. Women in restaurants, airplanes, and other public spaces have been told to leave or to cover up while breastfeeding their children. Many of these mothers say they feel unwelcomed, uncomfortableRead MoreBreastfeeding Vs. Formula Nutrition Essay1302 Words   |  6 Pages One such decision is whether to breastfeed your baby or to offer her formula nutrition. Deciding between breastfeeding and formula nutrition is purely a personal choice. But as a mother you must remain aware of a few facts about both the feeding methods. Read on to know more about breastfeeding vs. formula nutrition. Breastfeeding Breast milk is the best food for your baby. The advantages of breastfeeding for your newborn are many. Advantages for the baby Breast milk provides all the necessary proteinsRead MoreThe Breast Vs. Bottle Debate1718 Words   |  7 Pages The Breast vs. Bottle Debate Deciding whether to formula feed or breastfeed ones baby is one of the biggest and most crucial decisions expectant and new parents will make before giving birth. Organizations such as World Health Organizations (WHO), American Medical Association (AMA), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and American Dietetic Association recommend breastfeeding as the best option for the newborn. Most of these organizations and other supporters of breastfeeding affirm that it defendsRead MoreThe Benefits of Breasfeeding Newborn Babies Essay1304 Words   |  6 PagesI found many advantages to it. The longer a mother breastfeeds her baby, there is a higher chance that her baby will get the healthy benefits of breastfeeding. There are many benefits to breastfeeding for the mother, child, and society. The benefits for a breastfeeding baby are: early breast milk is called liquid gold, it is easier to digest, it fights diseases, and it changes as your baby grows. Doctors tell breastfeeding mothers to breast feed their baby until it is up to 2 years of age. The benefitsRead MoreEssay on Breastfeed No Matter Where You Are1254 Words   |  6 PagesBreastfeeding is such a natural process. It is one of the best gifts a mother can give her child. Breastfeeding is such a great gift that is just keeps on giving all throughout a child’s life. Breast milk is a good source of protein and high in calories. The breast milk boosts the immune system, allows the child to grow big and strong, and even makes them smarter. Despite all of these positive aspects of breastfeeding, when people see a mother in public breastfeeding her child, they become a littleRead MoreBreastfeeding Is Best For Healthy Development872 Words   |  4 Pagesif she wants to breastfeed or not. Yes it is better to breastfeed and also it’s healthy for the child, and the mother. The issue today, Is Breastfeeding Inevitably Best for Healthy Development? I agree with Julie E. Artis, that the broad promotion of breastfeeding has the potential to unfairly stigmatize women who do not breastfeed while overstating the benefit. Reasons why I agree with Julie E. Artis because mothers should not be stigmatize, because they chose to not to breastfeed. I feel as thoughRead MoreHospital Of Nursing : Patient Profile1292 Words   |  6 Pagesdelivered a healthy 3220-gram baby girl. Baby girl was placed on mom’s chest right after birth. Began breast-feeding right away with nurse assistance. After the hour assessment of baby mom tried to breastfeed again starting on the left side for 20 minutes. Mom stated, â€Å"This being my first time I am not quite sure how to do this? How will I know she is getting enough?† Dad was also interested in how breast-feeding worked and was curious in why this was the best option for his new daughter opposed to formula

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Music Business Essay Summary Example For Students

Music Business Essay Summary Music Business Exam Number OneQuestion 1. The music publishing industry at a glance would seem to be those who print sheet music, method books, lead sheets, and all of the texts or notated music that musicians (and those aspiring to be musicians) use. Years ago, this was what most music publishers did, but as the industry has evolved the process that become much more complex. Music is not just ink and paper, intellectual material and property to the individual who writes it. Therefore the song does not become â€Å"a song† when it is written down. This is not an easy concept to grasp because the song by itself has no physical makeup. A song could exist once it is played for the first time, and songs can even exist inside the mind of a songwriter. This concept is why the publishing business can be so complex; we are dealing with intellectual property. The heart of the music publishing business lies in the rights to the original music. After the music is successful enough to financially support itself the music is printed in mass quantities in a variety of ways. This could be everything from guitar tabs to choral arrangements for a junior high choir. The publisher’s main source of income is through record royalties, performance royalties received from companies like the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP), Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI), and the Society of European Stage Authors and Composers (SESAC) for performances of music copyrighted by the publisher. These royalties could be from many different types of performances but most are though radio and songs on television. The success of a songwriter lies in the greatly in the hands of his/her publisher. Normally we hear of a band’s success when they are â€Å"signed† with a record deal, but most record companies not only produce and promote an album, they also act as the publisher who, when contracted, owns the rights to the music. When a publisher own the song it is put in to their catalog. Merchandise retailers have catalogs of their goods just like publishers have a catalog of songs that they own rights to. Publishing firms such as Warner/Chappell, BMG Music, MCA Music, and Sony music have catalogs of many styles of music. These companies are referred to as â€Å"full-line companies.† A broad repertoire allows them to market their music to many audiences. Most of these full-line company’s roots can be traced back to the music of Hollywood and the show music of Broadway. Publishers today may have thousands of songwriters in its catalog including all styles of music from around the globe. Representative Warner/Chappell owns, administers, or sub-publishes more that a million copyrights here and abroad. Today’s full-line publishers have many different divisions to their company. Large publishers handle virtually every aspect of a writer’s music, it’s recordings, distribution, sales, promotion, advertising, touring, and legal affairs. This figure lays out all the divisions a full-line publisher may have. The administration division is the division that handles the operations of the firm. All business affairs go through administration. When money is received from or paid to customers the firm the accounting divisions keeps all the financial records of these kinds of operations. The accounting division also would handle loans given to artist that are signed to the firm under the publisher’s record label. When a band records an album under a label they become a liability to the label because money has to be spent to record, produce and promote a artists music. Full-line publisher’s front this money and all profits from the artist come back and are split 50-50 with the publisher and the writer. If the artist maintains the rights to their songs the record contract will include a controlled composition clause that calls for a reduced mechanical royalty paid to the artist by the record label. This clause may reduce the royalty split to 75-25, the larger portion going to the re cord label. This clause would not be insisted to artists who place the full rights to works in the hands of the record company’s publisher. The artist remains a liability to the publisher as long as the artist has not made as much money as was invested into them by the publisher. An accountant usually handles the royalty department, which is money received from performances of the copyrighted music. This financial person will also handle normal operations such as payroll, accounts payable/receivable, insurance, purchasing and other financial operations. The copyright department may have one or more people in this division. This department is responsible for a number of tasks. Some of these important tasks are to:1. Conduct a title search. The copyright department first determines who owns the work. Just because an artist claims to have written a song does not give him rights to it. This may be a complicated process, which is why many publishers stay away from music that is se nt blindly to them for review. Legal disputes between the publisher and the writer could result and end up in court, which can be a long and costly process. Other issues that add to the complication are co-authors to the music, previous publishers, revision to music or lyrics, and many more. When the copyright department has performed this research, a copyright attorney can answer remaining questions. Depending on the demand of this type of attorney to the firm, the firm may hire one full time for these affairs. 2. Registering claims of copyright. This is done to make the copyright official, which may cost about twenty dollars for a song. 3. Handle the mechanical, and synchronization licenses of the music. Mechanical licenses are issued to artists for the recording of a copyrighted work. Synchronization licenses are issued for the use of copyrighted works in firms. This may be done through the Harry Fox agency, or may be handled through the copyright department. 4. Keeping current records of all copyrights owned by the publisher. This includes the renewal, extensions, sales, or abandonment of existing copyrights. Copyrights do have a time limit, so the need to watch where they stand in time is important to the life of the work. There may be a specific department for business affairs that deal with the legal operations of the firm. The publisher may have staffed lawyers and attorneys in this department that study the copyright laws and take legal action for the breaking of copyright laws, or the negotiating of new laws. If the publisher does not have the demand for a full time lawyer or attorney, they may be hired from outside firms. The acquisitions division is responsible for contracting writers and purchasing other catalogs. A representative from the publisher may travel the country to find artists that would bring more business to the firm. Like â€Å"scouts† this person is in charge of artists and repertoire (A R). The A R representative may attend a major event by an artist to see them perform and evaluate whether they would be profitable for the firm. Remember that the publisher splits all profits 50-50; millions of dollars may be at stake at the success of one artist. The acquisitions department is responsible for the purchasing of catalogs of smaller firms. This makes the music publishing industry and oligopoly; an industry controlled by a few large firms. The print publishing division is responsible for task such as editing, engraving, artwork, copying, and the printing of its catalogs music. The signed artists may meet with the editors, and arrangers in this department to prepare the music for printing in a number of different ways. The music would simply be transcribed to a lead sheet, or an entire album could be published in a book with all the chords and guitar tabs for aspiring musicians to purchase. After the music is printed it is then distributed. The promotion division is often the largest of all the divisions in a full-line publishing company. The success of a work is held in the hand of the promotion of the artist and their music. Even artists that do not have outstanding talent or abilities, but have excellent promotion will have more fame than the talented unadvertised artist. The people incharge of these artists success are the producers, managers, and musical directors for not only the records they produce but also the performances they give. Producers in the recording studio deal with the quality of the music and how it sounds the its audience. The musical director may also be present to make decisions about the arranging of music during the recording project. The artist’s manager is responsible for the personal well being of the artist. The other departments involved in promotion are responsible for print ads, store displays for the album, direct mail to retailers and fans, and any other special events. After all the acquisions, administration, print production, and promotion divisions have performed their responsibilities, the distribution division takes control and begins to put this intellectual, funded, copyrighted, recorded, printed, promoted music into the hands of consumers. The distribution and sales division distributes the CD’s, tapes, sheet music, T-shirts, and other merchandise to wholesalers and retailers of the products. These vendors buy in large quantities at wholesale prices. Another distributor of sheet music known as a rack jobber deals with small quantities of music usually less that one hundred at a time. Other distribution may be done through direct mail, catalog and online sales. The final division of the full-line publisher is the subpublishers and licenses. Most publishers will contact different tasks to other publishers who may specialize in print or other services necessary to the artist but not provided by the primary publisher. The most common ser vice performed by subpublishers is printing. Companies like Hal Leonard, Inc. and Warner/Chappell are two of the largest print publishers. In these kind of contracts the printer acts as the licensee and bare the full cost of printing and distributing while the licensee pays the licensor a royalty on sales of up to twenty percent of the wholesale cost. In this situation the licensee acts as selling agent. Individual Retirement Accounts: Why Bother? EssayIn this subject we also include the fair use of copyrighted material. The law gives guidelines to what is considered fair use for this material. The act list the criteria for a fair use that includes:1. The purpose or character of the use, including whether such uses is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes. 2. The nature of the copyrighted work3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole4. The effect of the use on the potential market for or value of the copyrighted workThere are exceptions to certain performances that are included in the fair use portion of the act. (1) The performance or display of a work by instructors or pupils in the course of face-to-face teaching activities of a nonprofit educational institution. (2) Performance of a nondramatic literary or musical work, display of work, by or in the course of transmission. These two uses allow students to study music for more that a hobby, but for a preparation for their careers upon graduation. This is a great resource for colleges to be able to teach and perform music and art for free as a fair use. Question 4. In the music industry there are three organizations that dominate the performance rights collection. These organizations are responsible for collecting royalties from clubs, concert halls, stadiums, bars, colleges, airlines, or any business or group that uses music to promote business for themselves. The money collected from these businesses is dispersed to publishing companies that split the profits with the songwriter. These performance rights organizations will take legal action against the venues that do not purchase the appropriate licenses for the uses of the copyrighted music. Some examples of licenses include mechanical, performance, special uses, synchronization and grand rights. The first performance rights organization established in 1914 is the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP). ASCAP’s income is derived from the following places in the music industry:1. 20% to 25% from reciprocating foreign licensing organizations. 2. About half from television stations and networks3. Radio generates about 25%4. Annual fees are figured on a small percentage of the adjusted gross incomeMembership of ASCAP is comprised mostly of composers and lyricists of Broadway shows, movie musicals, and pop songs. To become a member of ASCAP you must have at least one song commercially recorded, available on rental, or performed in media licensed by the society. ASCAP has a board of twelve writers and twelve publishers. In weighting performances ASCAP takes into account the following: 1. The medium in which the performance takes place2. The weight of the station on which the performance is carried3. The weight of a television network4. The type of performanceThe organization pays its members on the basis of census and sample surveys of performances. These are usually done at random at places that have commercial airplay. The data is then figured on an average and royalties are paid based on the average. Broadcast Music Inc. is set up different from ASCAP in its financial structure. BMI is owned by stockholders. It’s board of directors consists of those who own shares in the company; several hundred people. The affiliates of BMI are songwriters from genres including jazz, rhythm and blues, country, rock, gospel and much more. Unlike ASCAP, BMI has no members, but has writer and publisher affiliates. BMI accepts those who have written a musical composition and have recorded or performed the work commercially. BMI pays higher for songs that originate in a Broadway show or feature film. As the song is play or performed more the copyright owners receive bonus payments of up to four times the minimum rate. BMI has many foreign writers and publishers in Europe and relays on income from overseas greatly. BMI does withhold 3.6% for servicing foreign accounts. BMI deals with most licenses, as does ASCAP. The Society of European Stage Authors and Composers (SESAC) is the third of the pe rformance rights organizations. SESAC is the smallest of the three organizations. They believe that by being a smaller organization they can meet the needs of their writers and publishers better then the bigger organizations. The other side to this is that it is much more costly to the copyright owner to join with SESAC. SESAC is the technological leader among these organizations. They have a state-of -the-art tracking system which allows them to accurately track the performance and recording of works by its owners. SESAC uses a chart payment system, which makes royalty payments based on chart positions in major trade publications. Unlike ASCAP they do not have a weighing system. The success of the song is based on how high up on the chart it is. ASCAP and BMI operate under court consent decrees; SESAC does not. Each of these organizations has their own strength, and all three are important to the industry. Question 5. Working musicians can become members of unions and guilds that are respected around the nation. There are many benefits to being apart of these organizations. At a glance one may not like the idea of paying yearly dues to a group of musicians, but the benefits can be immeasurable in the right parts of the country. The American Federation of Musicians (AFM) is a trade union. It is the oldest union in the United States representing musicians that are active in their professional career. Over the year this union has seen decease in numbers because of difficulty in attracting new young members and state and national laws restricting certain kinds of collective bargaining. The union dues can range from one to five percent of union scale wages earned by its members. These dues are used to finance activities all over the nation and locally. The Union provides these musicians with the proper treatment and paid work. Most symphonies are made up from union players. Other organizations include the American Guile of Variety Artists. The AGVA represents singers, dancers, comedians, ice skaters, jugglers, magicians, and others who perform live. The AGVA provides membership to all types of performers from the struggling to the world-famous. The AGVA will negotiate with the venues of its performers. The Screen Actors Guild is made up for actors, singers and even on-screen instrumentalists. All of these organizations are very specific to its members and who can join. A musician may have to be a part several unions or guilds to get the attention he need to succeed. Some of the benefits to being a part of a musicians union are laid out in a â€Å"Bill of Rights† fashion including how union musicians are to be paid:1. The right to enjoy a minimum wage, whether derived from live performance, royalties, or reuse, that is sufficient to provide a standard of support proportional to the entire investment of time and resources required to secure and perform said gainful employment. 2. The right to safe and healthy working conditions including protection from health threatening theatrical devices, demeaning and exploitive costumes or uniforms, excessive sound pressure levels, substandard travel arrangements, ingestion of second hand tobacco smoke, irrelevant recorded music before performances and during intermissions and the right to reasonable rest periods. 3. The right to equal employment opportunities based on musical qualifications and/or entertainment value regardless of race, ethnic background, age, gender, religion, cultural diversity or political affiliations. 4. The right to negotiate fairly on ones own behalf with universal recognition and legal enforcement of resulting contracts on agreed terms. 5. The right to ownership of all intellectual property rights as applied to compositions, performances, and recordings by all players and singers as well as leaders and publishers who are already protected. Minimum wage from gainful employment must be sufficie nt to pay all necessary costs for life, shelter, and health care in the proportion of 100% for 40 hours weekly invested and directly proportional for fewer hours. This investment of time includes, in addition to hours of actual live performance, those hours spent in practice, rehearsal, preparation, post-production and (when required by the employer) promotion of the event. In absolutely no instance shall this total work investment be compensated for less than federally mandated minimum wages. We can see that union protects and serves the musicians and gives them freedom to pursue their own careers in the performing arts. These organizations create stability for the pursuit of full-time jobs in many different areas of the arts, not only in music but also in the world of theatre and visual arts. Music Essays